Glossary of terms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Acquisition of land

Land which may be bought back or received by the Crown, Government instrumentalities or local governments for public purposes. Owners are recompensed at the land's current market or assessed value.

ACRES Australian Centre for Remote Sensing 

Australia's major earth resource satellite reception and processing facility.

Active sensing 

Remote sensing methods that provide their own source of electromagnetic radiation for illumination, for example, radar.

Advisory panel

The Land Administration Act 1997 provides for the Minister to appoint an advisory panel to advise on any matter. The panel is expected to be used mostly to adjudicate between competing applicants for a lease or purchase of Crown land. It will not have the decision-making powers of the Land Board under the 1933 Act.

AFN Australian Fiducial Network 

A network of permanent GPS satellite receivers, developed by AUSLIG for scientific and surveying applications, used as the primary framework for the Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA).

AGD Australian Geodetic Datum 

The framework used for coordinates in Australia since 1966. It is now being superseded by the Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA).

AGDB Australian Geographic Database 

Program of converting AUSLIG's topographic map information into digital format. GEODATA products are produced from this program.

Air rights 

Tenure may be created over strata of Crown land. A road or rail tunnel may for instance be reserved, and the surface leased or disposed of in fee simple. Similarly, a lease, easement or reserve may be created over a bridge or overpass. These are examples of "Air Rights" tenures.

Alienated land

Land held in freehold.

Amalgamation

Crown land in closed roads, discontinued railways and vermin-proof fences, and "scraps" of Crown land may be sold to adjoining landholders, with the land then being amalgamated (or merged) with the adjacent property by inclusion in the Title to that landholding.

AMG Australian Map Grid 

An adaptation of the Universal Transverse Mercator Projection which remaps the sensor data onto a grid for Australian maps.

AMI Active Microwave Instrument 

Active sensing system on-board ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites which consists of two separate radars, operating at a frequency of 5.3ghz (c-band) with three modes of operation, a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for image and wave mode and a three-antenna Wind Scatterometer.

ANN Australian National Network 

A network of about 70 survey marks across Australia whose coordinates have been accurately determined by GPS observations. These sites, together with the AFN sites, form the basis of the Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA).

ANZLIC 

Australia New Zealand Land Information Council.

AOS 

Acquisition of Signal.

ARC/INFO 

Geographic Information System (GIS) software.

Array sensor 

An imaging device employing an array of electronically-sampled detectors in the focal plane.

Ascending node 

The point on a satellite's orbit when a satellite crosses the Earth's equatorial plane from South to North.

Atmospheric correction 

Image processing procedure that compensates for the effects of scattered and absorbed radiation by the atmosphere.

ATSR-M 

Along-track scanning radiometer with microwave sounder (European remote sensing satellite or ERS).

AUTOCAD 

Drafting software.

Automated cartography 

The preparation and presentation of maps using machines controlled by computers.

AVHRR 

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor onboard the NOAA series of satellites.

Azimuth 

Geographic orientation of a line given as an angle measurement in degrees clockwise from north.

Azimuth Range 

For radar images this term represents the distance measured along a line between the limits of the radar beam in the direction of the satellite or aircraft.


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B

Ballot

The Land Administration Act 1997 provides for disposition of Crown land by ballot process.

Band 

A selection of a wavelength interval in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Band-pass filter 

A wave filter that has a single transmission band extending from a lower cutoff frequency greater than zero to a finite upper cutoff frequency.

Bandwidth 

The number of cycles per second between the limits of a frequency band.

Base mapping 

Usually associated with topographic mapping covering country or region at different scales.

Bathymetric surveying 

Is the measure of the depth and topography of the ocean floor. Usually associated with the mapping of resources of a sea bed.

BIL 

Band Interleaved by Line.

BIS 

Bio-Geographic Information System.

BMS Building Management System (a GFIS derivative) 

A system which assists building managers with floor space and tenancy concerns.

Board of Management (Reserves)

Large reserves may be managed by a board. Such boards are appointed under the Parks and Reserves Act, and the Minister for Lands is responsible for appointments to these boards.

Brightness 

The attribute of visual perception in accordance with which an area appears to emit more or less light.


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C

Cadastral survey 

A survey of the boundaries of land parcels.

Cadastre 

A public register usually recording the quantity, value and ownership of land parcels in a country or jurisdiction.

Calibration 

The act or process of comparing certain specific measurements in an instrument with a standard.

Cartography 

The art and science of producing maps, charts and other representations to spatial relationships.

Caveat (buyer beware)

A warning to a person searching the original Certificate of Title that there is a claim lodged on the Title to the land, which may prohibit the Registrar of Titles from registering a dealing upon that Title.

CCD Charged Coupled Device 

A device in which electrons are stored at the surface of a semiconductor.

CCRS 

Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing.

CCT Computer Compatible Tape 

A one-quarter inch magnetic tape reel which is used to store digital data.

Cell 

An area on the ground from which EMR is emitted or reflected.

CEOS 

Committee on Earth Observation Satellites.

Certificate of Crown Land Title

As for Certificate of Title but issued only over Crown land.

Certificate of Title

A page of the Register book specifying the ownership of a defined land parcel, and the lodged or registered interests or claims (encumbrances) against that ownership.

CGNA 

Committee for Geographical Names in Australia.

Change detection 

Sensing of environmental changes.

Characteristic curve 

A curve showing the relationship between exposure and resulting density in a photograph image, usually plotted as density (D) against the logarithm of the exposure (log E) in candela-meter-seconds. It is also called the H and D curve, the sensitometric curve, and the D log E.

Chemical fog 

Density produced on photographic paper or films by chemical means, such as too energetic or contaminated developer.

Closed road

A public road closed by legal processes. The land involved is usually disposed of to the owners of adjoining properties.

CNES 

Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (French Space Agency)

Conditional Fee Simple, or Conditional Tenure

Under the Land Administration Act 1997 the Minister may dispose of Crown land in fee simple subject to conditions as to use. The land may be disposed of for nominal consideration or discounted price. The State retains equity in the land to the extent of the discount. The Act provides for the enforcement of conditions and the retrieval of the State's equity. This form of tenure replaces Crown Grants in Trust under the previous legislation.

Conditional Purchase Lease

These leases relate solely to Agricultural and Grazing land, and are for terms varying from 25 to 30 years. Up to 2000 hectares (or 4000 with special approval) may be held by the one party. The lessee pays a rental sufficient to cover the purchase price and if all land development conditions are met, the lessee is then entitled to become the owner.

Conditional Purchase Licence

As for a Conditional Purchase Lease except that the term is limited to seven years during which development conditions must be met. The holder of the licence then has 12 months in which to pay the purchase money.

Conservation Estate

The various forms of reserves and dedications of Crown land coming under the control of the Conservation and Land Management Act (State Forests, national parks, conservation reserves, marine parks, etc.).

Conservation Parks

Crown land set aside for "Conservation Park". These are controlled by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), through the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority.

Contour 

An imaginary line or a line drawn on a map joining all the points on the earth that are the same height above sea level.

Control 

A system of points which are used as fixed references for positioning other surveyed features.

Control, ground 

Control obtained by ground surveys as distinguished from control obtained by photogrammetric methods; may be for horizontal or vertical control, or both. Ground (in-situ) observations to aid in the interpretation of remote sensor data.

Control of reserve

Reserves are generally under the control of Landgate, but may be placed under the control of an authority or organisation.

Control point 

Any station in a horizontal and/or vertical control system that is identified on a photograph and used for correlating the data shown on that photograph.

Coordinates 

Linear or angular quantities which designate the position of a point in a given reference or grid system.

Coordinate, geographic 

A system of spherical coordinates for describing the positions of points on the earth. The declinations and polar bearings in this system are the latitudes and longitudes respectively.

Coordinates, grid 

A plane-rectangular coordinate system based on and mathematically adjusted to a map projection in order that geographic positions (latitudes and longitudes) may be readily transformed into plane coordinates and the computations relating to them made by the ordinary methods of plane surveying.

Covenants, positive or restrictive

Covenants requiring that the land be used or not used in specified ways. Such covenants may be imposed under the Land Administration Act 1997 on Crown land being disposed of in fee simple.

CP 

Centering Point or Control Point.

Crown Estate

All land which has not been alienated. This comprises about 93 percent of the area of Western Australia.

Crown Grant

A legal document issued in the name of Her Majesty, which transfers a defined portion of Crown land in fee simple, to the person named, after certain conditions are met. It may set out restrictions on how the land is to be used.

Crown Land 

All land except alienated land (includes reserved and leased Crown land, tidal waters, reclaimed land, river beds and lakes).

Crown Land Record

Is in the form of a title, but is only created for defined portions of Crown land administered under the provisions of the Land Act, 1933 as amended.

Crown Lease

A land lease issued for a period of five years or more, under the Land Act. The lease document is registered under the Transfer of Land Act.

CSA 

Canadian Space Agency.

CSDC 

Commonwealth Spatial Data Committee.


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D

DAF Data Acquisition Facility 

ACRES satellite receiving station at Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia.

Dedicate, dedication

The act of setting Crown land aside for a specified purpose, under the Land Administration Act 1997 or other legislation - for example, dedicating land for use as a road, railway or port.

Dedicated road

A road set aside for use by the public, the absolute property of which is vested in the name of the Crown. The Main Roads Department or local government authorities are responsible for managing such roads.

Deeds Act

Any land transferred from the Crown before 1 July 1875 occurred under this Act. The Act provides a system for the registration of deeds, wills and any other legal documents affecting the land. Documents issued under this Act are stored in the Office of Titles. The full name of this Act is the Registration of Deeds Act 1856.

DEM Digital Elevation Model 

A geographic grid of an area where the contents of each grid cell represents the height of the terrain in that cell.

Descending node 

Point on the orbit of a satellite when a satellite crosses the Earth's equatorial plane while moving from north to south.

DGPS Differential Global Positioning System 

Using two GPS satellite receivers with one at a known position it is possible to increase the accuracy from a roving receiver by applying corrections derived from the fixed receiver.

Digest 

Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard.

Digital mapping system 

A system for compiling spatial data directly in digital form.

Disposition

The act of granting a tenure or an interest in land, or reserving or dedicating Crown land.

Distortion 

Any shift in the position of an image on a photograph which alters the perspective characteristics of the photograph. Compression or expansion of the scale of the imagery in the azimuth direction. Change in scale from one part of the imagery to another.

Downlink 

A communication link between a satellite and a ground station.

DORIS 

Doplar Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite.

DPF Data Processing Facility 

ACRES satellite data processing centre in Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Dynamic range 

The ratio of maximum measurable signal to minimum detectable signal.


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E

Easement

Gives a person or a company "rights of use or engagement" over land owned by another.

EDM Electronic Distance Measurement 

Measurement of distance by means of electro-magnetic transmissions, including radio, visible high, laser and infra-red light.

Elevation 

The angle above the horizon, measured from the horizontal plane.

EMR Electromagnetic Radiation 

Energy propagated through space or through material media in the form of an advancing interaction between electric and magnetic fields.

Encumberance

A lodged or registered interest in land by a person who is not the registered proprietor. Examples are mortgages, lease agreements, caveats and easements.

Engineering surveying 

Surveying associated with the setting out and monitoring of engineering or construction works.

Enhancement, image 

The process of altering the appearance of an image for the purpose of extraction of additional information. It may be accomplished by digital or photographic (optical) methods.

ERC 

Earth Rotation Correction.

ERS European Remote Sensing Satellite 

ERS-1 was launched 17JUL 91and operates in a near circular sun synchronous orbit with a period of 100 minutes. The satellite altitude is 785km. T he repeat coverage cycle varies, depending on mission requirements, and includes 3, 35 and 168 day cycles. ERS-2 was launched 20 APR 95 and has the same orbit parameters as ERS-1.

ESA 

European Space Agency.


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F

Fee Simple

Also known as Freehold. The greatest estate that can be held by a person without being the absolute owner, which is the Crown. About 17.7 million hectares, or 7 percent of the State is freehold land.

FIG 

Federation Internationale des Geometres or International Federation of Surveyors.

Forfeiture

Describes the act of the State taking back an interest in Crown land, due to the interest holder's failure to comply with a condition.

Frequency 

The number of oscillations per unit time or number of wavelengths that pass a point per time.

Future Acts Regime

The federal Native Title Act 1993 sets down requirements for dealing with Crown land potentially subject to native title, where the State proposes to carry out works on, grant interests in, or legislate over, that land. Such actions are termed "future acts" by the Act, and the Act's provisions in this regard are known as the "Future Acts Regime". The regime is also known as the "Right to Negotiate Provisions".


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G

GDA Geocentric Datum of Australia 

The lastest Australian coordinate system, which is compatible with the Global Positioning System (GPS). The GDA was adopted in 1994.

Geocentric Datum 

A datum based on the Earth's centre of mass (or geocentre); as distinct from a regional datum, such as the AGD, whose origin does not coincide with the Earth's centre of mass.

GEODATA products

Comprise map information converted into digital format. Used in conjunction with geographic information systems GEODATA products assist applications such as resource management, environmental assessment, mineral prospecting, communications and transportation planning.

Geodesy 

The study of the size and shape of the Earth's surface, the measurement of the position and motion of points on the surface and the configuration and area of large portions of its surface.

Geodetic control 

A network of sites for which precise positions and/or heights are known and for which the shape and size of the Earth are taken into account.

Geodetic surveying 

Surveying which takes into account the shape and size of the Earth. The result of a geodetic survey is a continuous series of accurately marked points on the ground, to which topographic, land and engineering surveys can be related to provide additional coordinated points for mapping and other purposes.

Geometric correction 

The removal of sensor, platform, or scene induced geometric errors such that the data conforms to a desired projection. This involves the creation of a new digital image by resampling the input digital image.

GFIS Graphical Facilities Information System 

A computerised system for storing, updating and querying selected information on a building, a site or series of sites. The key feature is linking of textual or descriptive information with graphically presented building or site plans.

GICS Geocoded Image Correction System 

An image processing system employed at ACRES.

GIS Geographic Information System 

A data base technology, linking any aspect of land-related information to its precise geographic location.

GPS Global Positioning System 

Is a satellite-based navigation system developed by the United States Department of Defense and widely used for civilian navigation and positioning.

Grey scale 

A monochrome strip of shades ranging from white to black with intermediate shades of grey. The scale is placed in a setup for a colour photograph and serves as a means of balancing the separation negatives and colour dye images.

Ground station 

A facility capable of receiving signals from earth observation satellites such as LANDSAT, SPOT, ERS, JERS and MOS.

Ground resolution cell 

The area on the ground that is covered by the instantaneous field of view (IFOV this term is explained elsewhere in the glossary) of a detector.

GRS Grille de Reference SPOT 

The system of using a path and row combination to identify nominal scene positioning for data from the SPOT satellites.


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H

HDDT High Density Digital Tape 

One inch magnetic tape containing data from a remote sensing satellite and recorded in a compressed format.

HRV Haute Resolution dans le Visible

The name given to the multispectral radiometer designed for SPOT spacecraft and offering high resolution in the visible and near-infrared. The first three SPOT spacecraft (SPOT-1,-2,-3) carry two identical HRVs designed for operation in a number of viewing configurations and in different spectral modes.

HRVIR 

Haute Resolution Visible Infra Rouge (proposed SPOT4).

Hydrographic surveying 

The measurement and description of the physical features of the navigable portion of the Earth's surface and adjoining coastal areas with special reference to their use for the purpose of navigation.

Hypsometric tints 

Colours on a map depicting variations in the height of the Earth's surface above sea level.


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I

ICSM 

Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping.

IFOV - Instantaneous Field Of View 

the pixel dimensions of the bulk (Level 1) product not the pixel dimensions of the resampled product.

IGAE 

Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment.

Instrument

A category of legal document which includes transfers, easements, leases, mortgages, etc. under any Act which affects the registration of land dealings.

IR 

Infra-Red

IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite 

IRS 1b launched Aug 1991. IRS 1c launched Sep 1995. IRS 1c operates in a sun synchronous orbit at an altitude of 817km with an orbital period of 101 minutes.


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J

JERS-1 Japanese Earth Resources Satellite 

JERS-1 (also referred to as FUYO-1) was launched 11FEB92 and operates in a sunsynchronous orbit at an altitude of 568km. Orbital period is 96 minutes and the repeat coverage cycle is 44 days.

Joint Tenancy

The ownership of land in common by more than one person where there is a right of survivorship, that is where on the death of one joint owner, the share of the interest of the deceased goes to the surviving owner(s). See also Tenants in Common.

Joint Venture

The Land Administration Act 1997 provides for the State of Western Australia to enter into agreements with private parties or local governments for the servicing, subdivision and sale of townsite land.


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L

Land

All land within the limits of the State, including coastal waters and the seabed.

Landgate

The Western Australian Land Information Authority operates under the business name of Landgate; formerly Department of Land Information (DLI), preceded by Department of Land Administration (DOLA).

Land Act 1933

An Act of Parliament to consolidate and amend laws relating to Crown Land.

Land administration

Land adminstration provides a fair and equitable system of land rights for the government, the community and to the individual land holder. It is an integrated system of land law, land surveying and mapping, land titling and registration, and land valuation and taxation that delivers the fair and equitable system of land rights.

Land Board

A board set up under the Land Act 1933 to determine between competing applicants for a lease or purchase of Crown land. Replaced by Advisory Panels under the Land Administration Act 1997.

LANDSAT 

Earth resources satellites operated by NOAA, United States. LANDSAT 5 was launched 01MAR94. and operates in a near polar sun synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705km. Repeat cycle is 16 days.

Lease

A grant of possession of property for a number of years at specified rentals and subject to various conditions. The registered proprietor has certain re-entry rights if the lessee defaults by not observing the conditions of the lease, or by not paying the specified rentals.

Lease of reserve

Reserves may be leased direct by the Crown for periods up to 10 years for any purpose, under rental conditions specified by the Governor. Reserves may also be leased by parties holding a formal vesting order, provided the order includes the power to lease.

Lease of town and suburban land

Although this practice was discontinued many years ago, there are numerous leases of this type in existence, mainly for residential purposes, the majority of which are for terms of 99 years. Most of these leases confer upon the lessee the right to acquire the fee simple, at prices ranging from the original to the present capital unimproved value.

Legal cadastre 

A cadastre compiled so that the jurisdiction may have a record of ownership of all land parcels

LGA 

Local Government Authority

Licence to occupy

A certificate given under the authority of the Minister for Lands authorising the purchaser to enter and hold the land, subject to the terms and conditions specified.

LIS

Location information strategy. Synonomous with geographic information system (GIS).

LMS Lifecycle Maintenance System (a GFIS derivative) 

A system which assists building managers to develop a long term maintenance program and plan for costs involved in the upkeep of buildings over a 15-20 year period.

Look angle (radar) 

The direction of the look, or direction, in which the antenna is pointing when transmitting and receiving from a particular cell.

LOS 

Loss of Signal

LUT 

Look-UP Table


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M

Mall Reserve

Crown land (generally a closed road) reserved for the purpose of a "Mall Reserve".

Management Body

Person/s or body in which the care, control and management of a reserve or Mall Reserve is placed.

Management of Reserves

The Department maintains a Crown Reserve Register which includes details of the size, purpose, locality, etc. of all Crown reserves in Western Australia. It also shows who controls the reserve.

Management Plan

Plan setting out proposed development, management and use of Crown land by a management body or lessee.

Map 

A representation of the earth's surface. A cadastral map is one showing the land subdivided into units of ownership; a topographic map is one showing the physical and superficial features as they appear on the ground.

Mbps Megabits per second 

The rate of transfer of binary information in millions of bits per second and commonly referred to in data transmission rates from satellites to ground stations.

MCCF 

Mission Control Centre France

Memorandum of Common Provisions

Is the contractual component of a short form mortgage or lease, it contains all the other elements that make up the formal mortgage or lease.

Memorial

A copy of a land-related document lodged at the Office of Titles evidencing a transaction under the Registration of Deeds Act 1856.

Memorial (Deed Poll Registration)

A document lodged under the Registration of Deeds Act 1856, notifying the change of name of a person. All deeds lodged prior to 1957 are filed in the Office of Titles. Deeds lodged since then are filed in the Registrar General's Office.

Memorial (of advertisement)

A document lodged at the Office of Titles by a Local Authority showing evidence that the legal requirements necessary to sell land for the non-payment of rates, have been attended to.

Memorial (prohibiting dealings in land)

A document lodged at the Office of Titles under one of a number of statutes, which when noted on a Certificate of Title acts as a caveat.

Mining surveying 

Associated with the construction, monitoring and mapping of mines and associated works.

Ministerial Order

An order made by the Minister for Lands authorising disposition and other administrative actions in relation to Crown land.

MLA 

Multispectral Linear Array

MMOFE Mission Management Organization Front End 

NASDA's mission management computer.

Mortgage

Agreement to the repayment of a loan with interest, over a certain time, by the owner of the property to the mortgagee.

Mortgagee

The lender of the money covered by the mortgage, for example a bank to the owner of the property.

Mortgagor 

The borrower who has used his/her property as security for the mortgage debt.

MOS 

Marine Observation Satellite (Japan).

Mosaicing 

The assembling of photographs or other images whose edges are cut and matched to form a continuous photographic representation of a portion of the earth's surface.

MOSS 

Modelling of Surface Systems.

MQS Microimage Quicklook System 

Image cataloguing system employed at ACRES.

MSS Multi-spectral Scanning System 

A scanner on board LANDSAT 4 and 5 that records four bands of digital data.

Multipurpose cadastre 

A cadastre containing a variety of parcel-based information considered necessary for good land administration.

Multispectral 

Generally used for acquisition of remote sensing data in two or more spectral bands.

MW 

Microwave.


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N

Nadir 

The point on the ground vertically beneath the perspective centre of the camera lens.

NASA 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

NASDA 

National Space Development Agency (Japan)

National Parks

Usually "A" class reserves, controlled by the Department of Conservation and Land Management, through the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority.

Native Title

In 1992 the High Court ruled (in the Mabo case) that:

  • Australian common law recognises a form of native tile.
  • Where it has not been extinguished, native title reflects the rights that the laws or customs of the indigenous inhabitants give them to their traditional lands.
  • Subject to the effect of some particular Crown leases, Queensland law preserves the native title of the Murray Islanders as defined by their laws or customs. The Court's ruling was subsequently legislated by the federal Native Title Act 1993 for all of Australia. The greater part of the Crown estate is potentially subject to Native Title.

Nature Reserves

Reserves set aside for the conservation of flora and fauna. These are for the most part controlled by the Department of Conservation and Land Management, through the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority.

NBMS 

National Bathymetric Map Series.

NIR 

Near Infra-Red.

NOAA 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

NSCD 

National Spatial Cadastral Database.

NTDB 

National Topographic Data Base.

NTMS National Topographic Map Series 

A civilian map series comprising a set of consistent topographic maps nation-wide, at scales of 1:100 000 and 1:250 000.

Number of looks (radar) 

This term refers to the successive observations of the same area as the antenna moves along its designated path. Many observations may be required in order to characterise the backscatter properties of a surface.


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O

Options

The Land Administration Act 1997 provides for options (or rights) to be granted, to:

  • lessees of Crown land to renew their leases
  • lessees of Crown land, to purchase the fee simple of their leased land
  • lessees of Crown land to purchase an option to purchase the fee simple of their leased land;
    parties, to lease Crown land
  • parties, to purchase Crown land
  • former owners of land (or interests in land) taken for a public work, to re-acquire their interest in that land.

Orbit 

Path of a satellite around the earth.

Orbital elements 

A set of parameters defining the orbit of a satellite. Also called orbital parameters.

Orbital period 

The time taken by a satellite to make one revolution around the earth. Also referred to as the anomalous or nodal period.

Orthographic projection 

The projection by parallel rays onto a plane at right angles to the rays.

Orthophotomaps 

Airphoto maps, true to scale.

Ownership

All land is subject to Tenure which means the Crown is the ultimate owner. Land holders are tenants in one form or another and are termed Registered Proprietors.


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P

Pastoral Board

A board set up under the Land Act 1933 to oversee the administration of the State's pastoral leases. Replaced under the Land Administration Act 1997 by the Pastoral Lands Board.

Pastoral Lands Board

The Land Administration Act 1997 equivalent to the 1933 Act's Pastoral Board.

Pastoral lease

A lease over land which gives the lessee the right to graze stock on the natural vegetation. Pastoral leases are limited to the natural surface of the land only, and the lessee has no right to the soil or timber. Areas leased vary in size up to 500 000 hectares. 

Path 

The number of the north/south track of the satellite in its specific satellite grid. LANDSAT uses the WRS and SPOT the GRS. For LANDSAT, in the visibility circle for the Alice Springs receiving station, the path range is 84 to 117, from east to west.

Pedestrian Access Way

Land acquired by the Crown for use as a footway.

Permits (Pastoral)

May be granted under the Land Administration Act 1997 to permit diverse use of pastoral lease land (eg for tourism, horticulture, and non-indigenous pastures).

Permit to Occupy

Issued on request and only after the full purchase money and Crown Grant fee has been paid and the conditions of purchase satisfied.

Perpetual Lease

Relates to properties settled by eligible ex-servicemen after the last World War. Perpetual leases were granted pursuant to the provisions of the War Service Land Settlement Act. The Commonwealth owns the land in Fee Simple and leases it under special arrangements with the State. Provided conditions are met, the lessee may pay the agreed option price and receive the freehold of the land.

Photogrammetry 

The science and art of obtaining measurements from photographs.

Pixel 

A contraction of the words 'Picture Element'. A data element having both spatial and spectral aspects. The spatial variable defines the size of the resolution cell (ie the area on the ground represented by the data values), and the spectral variable defines the intensity of the spectral response for that cell in a particular channel.

PLA Panchromatic Linear Array 

The single band sensor onboard the SPOT 1,2, and 3 spacecrafts.

Polarisation 

The direction of vibration of the electrical field vector of electromagnetic radiation (EMR).

Postcode products 

Range of computer data products based on postcodes defined by Australia Post and converted by AUSLIG to geographical files of latitude and longitude coordinates. This data can be manipulated to produce different postcode maps and tables and can be linked with census and socio-demographic data to help businesses analyse markets, customers, competitors, etc.

Power of Attorney

Gives authority to another person to act on an individual's behalf. The document should state what powers this person has and for what time length. The Transfer of Land Act contains a schedule (19th) form, which must be used and closely followed, to deal in land.

Prescription

The presumption of a grant of interest in land to an individual, through that person's long, unchallenged use of land. The Prescription Act 1832 allows for claims of easement or adverse possession over private and Crown land, through long usage.

The Limitation Act excludes claims for adverse possession against Crown land. The Land Administration Act 1997 seeks to extend this limitation to exclude claims for easement over Crown land.

Private road

A roadway on privately-held land, which is restricted in use to certain land owners. It is set out on an Office of Titles survey.

Private right of way

A narrow strip of land generally in a private subdivision and legally available only to owners of blocks in the subdivision.

Profit A Prende

An interest in land which may be granted under the Land Administration Act 1997, enabling the harvesting of that land (for example, trees, sandalwood or wildflowers).

PROP-A-T 

Property Asset Management Tool to Assist Schools (a GFIS derivative)

Property

A general term describing a person's possessions. "Real property" refers to a particular piece of land owned by a person.

PSMA 

Public Sector Mapping Agencies.

Public access route

Tracks across Crown land providing public access to coastal recreation areas, where formal dedication as a road is not appropriate.

Public road

A road dedicated to use by the public. Such roads are controlled and managed by the local authority or the Main Roads Department. Also referred to as a dedicated road, gazetted road or street.

Public right of way

Land vested in the Crown as a condition of subdivision.

Public utility services

Drainage, electricity, gas, sewerage, telephone or water services.


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Q

Qualified Certificate of Crown Land Title

A Certificate of Title where some interests are unknown at the time of issue.

Quantization 

The process of converting from continuous values of information to a finite number of discrete values.


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R

RADARSAT 

The earth observation satellite launched 04NOV95 and operated by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). RADARSAT is equipped with a C-band SAR which can be operated in a variety of modes with swath widths ranging from 35 kilometres to 500 kilometres and with resolutions from 10 metres to 100 metres respectively.

Radiance 

A measure of the energy radiated by an object together with the frequency distribution of that radiation.

Raster data 

A data cell (or pixel) composed of rows and columns. Satellite data is an example of raster data.

RASvy 

Royal Australian Survey Corps.

Registration of Deeds Act 1856

See Deeds Act.

Relief displacement 

A shift in position of the optical image of an object caused by the height of the object above or depth below a datum plane.

Remote sensing 

the acquisition of information about an object without physical contact. Usually associated with the acquisition of information about the Earth's surface by electronic and/or optical instruments from satellites, airborne platforms or ground observation.

Repeat cycle 

Cycle time for a satellite to pass over a given point on the earth.

Reservation

May be either:

  1. The process of reserving Crown land for a specified purpose.
  2. The withholding to the Crown of specified rights or interest in Crown land being disposed of in fee simple (eg mineral rights).

Reserves

Areas of Crown Land reserved for various public purposes, for example parks, recreation, drainage or church sites; the reserve is identified by a number, eg Reserve No. 12345. Reserves may be vested, leased or Crown Granted in Trust. There are three different categories of reserves.

  • CLASS "A" reserves forever remain dedicated to the purpose declared, until by an Act of Parliament it is otherwise amended. Class "A" is used where there is a need perceived for the highest form of protection, for example "Kings Park", or national parks.
  • CLASS "B" reserves are seen as warranting higher protection than usual, but not to the extent of Class "A". Class "B" reserves may be varied by Governor in Executive Council, but amendment must be notified to the Parliament.
  • CLASS "C" reserves form the vast majority of reserves. Amendments to or the declaration of Class "C" reserves are determined by the Governor in Executive Council.

Resumptions

Land may be resumed for a variety of public purposes, generally using the powers of the Public Works Act 1902. The Crown, a Crown Instrumentality, or a Local Authority has the right to resume land. The process of resuming land frees it of all encumbrances, rights or easements. Notice of such resumption is published in the Government Gazette and takes effect immediately on publication. The act of resumption gives owner(s) certain rights to claim compensation.

Revest

The process of returning the full estate or interest in land to the Crown. The land then becomes part of the Crown estate.

Right of Way (R.O.W.)

A right of way is a strip of land available either for use by the general public, or a restricted section of the community, and may be created by subdivision, specific transfer, or continued use over a period of years.

Right to Negotiate Provisions

Under the Future Acts Regime of the federal Native Title Act 1993, native title parties are given a right to negotiate with the State or other parties proposing to undertake "future acts" over Crown land potentially subject to native title.

Row 

The number of the east/west grid line in the specific satellite grid. LANDSAT uses the WRS and SPOT the GRS. For LANDSAT, in the visibility circle for the Alice Springs receiving station, the row range is 61 to 91, from north to south.


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S

SAA 

Standards Association of Australia

SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar 

Type of instrument on recently launched satellites which can "see" through clouds and make it possible to acquire satellite imagery day and night.

SATOPS Satellite Operations Section (ACRES) 

The primary responsibilities include the management of all client future acquisition requests and also long and short term acquisition planning for the ACRES archive program.

Scale 

The indication given on a map, either as a linear scale or representative fraction, of the ratio between a given distance on the map and the corresponding distance on the earth's surface.

SDTS 

Spatial Data Transfer Standard

Search of a parcel of land

Search is the common term used to describe the process of obtaining details, usually in the form of a photocopy of a document, of a parcel or parcels of land, for example, a "Title search" refers to obtaining a photocopy of a Certificate of Title.

Sensor 

Any device which gathers EMR or other energy and presents it in a form suitable for obtaining information about the environment.

Slant Range 

For radar images this term represents the distance measured along a line between the antenna and the target.

SLR Satellite Laser Ranging 

The measurement of the distance to a satellite fitted with retro-reflectors, by measuring the time taken for a laser beam to travel to the satellite and back. These measurements are used to determine satellite orbits and to monitor the movement of the Earth.

SOSS Satellite Operations and Scheduling System 

software used by ACRES DPF and DAF for the purpose of satellite scheduling and programming.

Special Lease

Crown Land may be leased for a variety of purposes as set out in the Land Act, for terms not exceeding 50 years, at annual rentals of not less than $4.00.

Spectral band 

An interval in the electromagnetic spectrum defined by two wavelengths, frequencies, or wave numbers.

SPOT Satellite Pour L'Observation de la Terre 

The SPOT series of earth observation satellites are operated by CNES, France. SPOT 1 was launched 22FEB86, SPOT 2 was launched 21JAN90 and is currently operational and SPOT 3 was launched 26SEP93 and is currently fully operational. SPOT satellites are operated in a sun synchronous near polar orbit. Satellite altitude is 830km and the repeat cycle is 26 days. SPOT 4 is proposed for launch in December 1997.

State Forest

A portion of the Crown Estate wholly devoted to forestry purposes. These are controlled by the Department of Conservation and Land Management through the Forests Commission.

Stereoscopic pair 

Two photographs of the same area taken from different camera stations so as to afford stereoscopic vision; frequently called stereopair.

Stereoscopic plotting instrument 

An instrument for plotting a map or obtaining spatial solutions by observation of stereoscopic models formed by stereopairs of photographs.

Stock Route

A strip of land reserved for the droving of livestock from farm to port or market. Generally within the northern regions of the State. It is not a road unless so dedicated.

Strata Plan

The mechanism for creating strata schemes and strata titles under the Strata Titles Act 1985 as Amended. Strata plans define the lots in a strata scheme (areas owned individually) and common property (areas owned jointly by all lot owners in the strata scheme). Strata lots are limited in height and depth (the stratum of the lot). Strata plans show a building on at least one lot of the strata plan and stratum of the lots is always linked to buildings shown on the plan.

Strata Title

A Certificate of Title for a lot in a strata scheme created under, and subject to the provisions of the Strata Titles Act 1985 as Amended. Strata titles specify the ownership of the lot, and the lodged and registered interests and claims (encumbrances) against that ownership.

StreetSmart

StreetSmart were tour, discover, regional and Perth metro hardcopy maps. StreetSmart products are no longer available. See maps & imagery for our latest mapping options. 

Sun synchronous 

Earth satellite orbit in which the orbital plane is near polar and the satellite passes over points on the Earth at the same latitude at the same local sun time.

Surveying 

Measurement of dimensions (contour, position, boundaries, area, height etc.) of any part of the earth's surface (land or water) or any cultural feature. Depending on the type of survey undertaken and the degree of accuracy required, "surveys" may involve the application of the theory, principles and techniques of geodesy, photogrammetry and cartography.

Survey - Strata Plan

The mechanism for creating survey-strata schemes and survey-strata titles under the Strata Titles Act 1985 as Amended. Survey-strata plans define the lots in a survey-strata scheme, which are the areas in the scheme owned individually. Common property areas owned jointly by all lot owners may, or may not exist in survey-strata schemes and are defined as "common property lots". Survey-strata lots may be limited in height and depth but generally are not. No buildings are shown on survey-strata plans.

Survey - Strata Title

A certificate of title for a lot in a survey-strata scheme created under, and subject to the provisions of the Strata Titles Act 1985 as Amended. Survey-strata titles specify the ownership of the lot, and the lodged and registered interests and claims (encumbrances) against that ownership.

Subsidiary Certificate of Crown Land Title

Certificate of Title issued for registration of subsidiary interests (eg multiple leases within a single reserve).

Superlot

A term commonly applied to a large parcel of Crown land which is being disposed of, whether by lease or sale, for subsequent subdivision and sale by the lessee or purchaser for townsite lots. The Land Administration Act 1997 makes provision for this to happen.

Surrender

The process of transferring back to the State an interest in land (eg surrender of freehold).

SWIR 

Short Wave Infra-Red


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T

Taking 

The term used under the Land Administration Act 1997 in lieu of "resumption" or "compulsory acquisition". It relates to the taking or acquisition of interests in land, whether by agreement or compulsion.

Telemetry 

Radio signals transmitted between satellites and ground stations.

Tenants in common

Where there is a desire of two or more people to hold the land in undivided shares. For example X has 1/3 share and Y has a 2/3 share of the land. Both X and Y can transfer their shares to another or others. On the death of one party, the land does not automatically go to the remaining partner unless stated in the will.

Tender

The Land Administration Act 1997 provides for disposition of Crown land by tender process - the submission of proposals and prices for specified areas of land.

Tenure

Commonly referred to as ownership, however land differs from goods in that no one person can possess land in absolute ownership. Tenure is the system of holding land for the Crown.

TERRS Tasmanian Earth Resources Satellite Station 

Satellite data acquisition station located in Hobart, Tasmania and operated by the CSIRO.

Third Party Grants

The federal Native Title Act 1993 provides a way for dealing with Crown land potentially subject to native title, through first undertaking compulsory acquisition. Where the intention is to subsequently grant an interest in that land (eg sell it, or lease it) to a private party - commonly called "third party grants". Special provisions apply.

TIR 

Thermal Infrared.

Title 

The evidence of a person's right to land.

TM Thematic Mapper 

A scanner on-board the LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites that records seven bands of digital data.

Topographic surveying 

Involves establishing the contour level and interval of the Earth's surface above and below sea level based on a particular control survey system. These surveys may be done by aerial, photogrammetric and ground survey and involves recording of natural features such as hills, streams, valleys and cultural features, such as roads, bridges, railways, etc. These surveys are used to produce topographic maps.

Topography 

Description or representation on a map of the physical and cultural surface features.

Torrens System

The present system of land title registration used by the Office of Titles. This system has simplified the registration of land dealings and guarantees the title of a land owner. It ensures that a person need not look further than the original Certificate of Title to ascertain all the registered interests in the land.

Torrens title 

A title registered in the manner advocated by Sir Robert Torrens in South Australia.

Transfer of Land Act (TLA)

An Act of Parliament which set up a public register of title to land, maintained by the Registrar of Titles.

Trustees

Persons appointed as substitutes for the registered proprietor, or owner, usually with a direction (for example a Will or Club Constitution) as to the management of the land.

Trusts - grants in Trusts

Reserved land may be granted in trust to a party under certain limited circumstances - for example where substantial capital costs require a high order of security, but the developer is of a charitable nature, justifying Government assistance in the form of a low cost grant of land. The Trust secures the land for the specified purpose and prevents its later sale. If sale should be agreed to at a later stage, reference to the Parliament is necessary to remove the Trust, and the sale proceeds are retained by the Crown. Some grantees of Trust land may be governed by Special Acts of Parliament, which convey certain rights in relation to Trust land.


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U

Unallocated Crown Land

Crown land which is not subject to any interest (aside from native title interests) and which not reserved or dedicated.

Unmanaged Reserve

A reserve which is not formally placed under the control of a management body.

Unvested Reserves

For the most part these reserves are wholly under the control of Landgate. Recommendations for alternative vesting, but with the same purpose, are made by Regional Managers, to allow reserves to be controlled by other agencies, for example "water reserves" by the Water Authority of Western Australia

UV 

Ultra-Violet.


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V

Vacant Crown Land

Crown Land not currently being used or reserved for any future purpose.

Vector data 

Spatial data in which the location of features is defined by points and straight lines (vectors). A road network would be described by vector data.

Vest

Vesting is a term relating to transfers of ownership or placement of control of land, which depends on the circumstances, as indicated by the following :

  1. The act of placing ownership of land in a person or body — for example, ownership may be vested in the Crown of private freehold land designated under the Town Planning and Development Act for public recreation reserves.
  2. The act of planning control of Crown land in a government agency for a specific purpose, under a special Act (eg a Port Authority Act, or Aboriginal Affairs Planning Authority Act).
  3. The act of placing control of reserved Crown land in a specified body, under the Land Act 1933 (eg vesting a reserve in a local government). "Vesting" is replaced by "management" in the Land Administration Act 1997.

Vesting Orders

  1. A reserve may be placed under the control of an authority or organisation by means of a Vesting Order issued by order of the Governor in Executive Council. Reserves may be vested in local government authorities, government departments, government instrumentalities, or private incorporated bodies, for example racing clubs and community organisations.
  2. The Commissioner of Titles may issue an order vesting freehold land in an applicant.
  3. The Courts (Supreme and Family Court of WA), can issue orders vesting freehold land in an applicant.

VLBI 

Very Long Baseline Interferometry.

VOI 

Verification of Identity.


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W

Warrant

Issued out of the Local Court, a warrant acts in the same way as a caveat, by preventing the registration of documents. It remains effective for a period of four months after issue and may be renewed by lodging a further warrant. It also permits a forced sale of the property, by the Court Sheriff or Bailiff, to satisfy a debt.

Wavelength 

The least distance between particles moving in the same phase of oscillation in a wave disturbance. For electromagnetic waves wavelength is influenced by the environment in which the waves are propagating (eg air versus a vacuum).

Way of necessity

Agreement between two parties to allow a person access to his/her property by means of crossing the other person's property. It may give rise to a legal right of way.

Writ Of Fieri Facias

Issued from the Supreme Court or District Court, this has the same effect as a Warrant.

WRS World Reference System 

The system of using a path and row combination to identify nominal scene positioning for data from the MSS and TM sensors on the LANDSAT satellite.


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This page was last updated on: 23 Jul 2018