SPP-09 General Drafting Practices

Version 1 - 18/07/2018

This guide is intended as general information only. If you are uncertain of your rights or interests, please seek professional legal advice. Landgate staff are not able to give legal advice or to draft your documents. Please read our Terms of Use above.

1       Plan Forms

2       Pre-Allocation of Plan and Field book Numbers

3       Digital Plans

4       Lots on a Plan Sheet

5       Multiple Sheet Plans

6       Scale should be Suitable to Show Detail

7       Graphical (Bar) Scale

8       Orientation

9       Line Styles

10     Text Styles

11      Symbols

12      Old Lines to Complete Surround

12.1   Connections Between Severances

13       Measurement Content

14       Measurement Presentation

15       Balance Lots

16       Multiple Owner Subdivision

17       Freehold: Land Acquisitions

18       Crown Land Acquisitions

19       Rural Road Dedications and the Non-Extinguishment of Native Title

20       Adverse Possession Claims

21       Isolated Crown Surveys

22       Residue Land Solutions

22.1     Multiple Lot Titles

22.2     Possessory Applications Claiming Part of a Multiple Lot Title

22.3     Roads and Road Widenings from Extensive Freehold Parcels

22.4     Excisions from Corridors

23        Road Widths

24        Road Names

25        Connections across Roads

26        Truncations and Road Widenings

27        Areas

28        Subject Land Total Distance

29         Abuttals

29.1     Depiction of Part Lots as Abuttals

29.2     Dual Numbering of Crown Plans and Diagrams

30        Enlargements and Displaced Detail

31        Water Features

32        Colouring

33        Fixation of Surveys

34        Lot Number Duplication

35        SSM Depiction

36        Azimuths and Grid Bearings

37        Administrative Boundaries on Crown Plans

37.1     Townsite Boundaries

37.2     State Forest Boundaries

37.3     Other Administrative Boundaries

38         Permanent Improvements as Boundaries

39         Encroachments, Building Connections

40         Parcel Identifier within Subject

41         Pastoral Leases

42         Unmarked Defined Boundaries

43         Compiled Plans

44         Depiction of Mineral Reservations

44.1      Reservations in Crown Grants

44.2      Lands Affected by Section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902

44.3      Mineral Reservations in Transfers

45         Depth Limits

45.1      Background

45.2      Current situation

46          Lot Numbers for Vesting Lots and Land Acquisitions

47          Depiction of Original Unsurveyed Boundaries

48          Curved Boundaries

1 Plan Forms

In 2000 the then Department of Land Information (now known as Landgate), in conjunction with representatives of the Surveying profession, developed a new Deposited Plan format for Crown and Freehold surveys. The new format provides greater flexibility for surveyors and addressed a number of concerns that have previously been raised by the surveying profession. The removal of the sketch from certificates of title and improved parcel identification under the ‘SmartRegister’ (SMR) electronic land titling system increased the role of the survey plan in Western Australia’s land registration process.

The main features of the plan format are as follows:

  • plans are limited to sizes A3 and A2. The A1 Plan size for Crown surveys was not accepted after 1 December  2000
  • a Plan includes a reference to its ‘type’ (i.e. Crown or Freehold) and ‘purpose’. (See Plan Practices Section 1.)
  • to assist on-line viewing of images of the plans the new forms are in landscape view and include borders
  • the plan format has two alternative title block positions – either right side or bottom of the Plan. That is, there are two different forms for A2 size and two for A3 size. The differences allow for surveys of different shapes
  • there is also a new form for the second or later sheets of multiple sheet plans
  • plans are given version numbers to assist in the tracking of changes
  • the previous limitations on the orientation of Crown Plans are removed. They can now be rotated on the form in the same manner as Freehold Plans.

Plan form masks are available from My Landgate Survey Channel. e-Plans are to be lodged in accordance with the e-Plan Guidelines in Appendix 6.

There is no need to include the redundant surveyor certificate/s. A company stamp (which includes telephone numbers, address and email address) may be placed on the Plan form and preferably be small and not obscuring detail.

2  Pre-allocation of Plan and Field book Numbers

Surveyors must obtain from Landgate pre-allocated numbers for Deposited Plans, Strata and Survey-Strata Plans and field books. Pre-allocation enables surveyors to lodge later in the Freehold Land development process when their Plans are more stable and less likely to require amendments. It also provides developers (and their agents) with more control and flexibility in early preparation of sales brochures, Contracts of Sale and conveyancing documents. Crown Plan projects such as Main Roads or pipeline easements also benefit because the abutting plans can be annotated at the time of drafting.

To avoid or minimise enquiries being made at Landgate about unlodged Plans and/or field books using pre-allocated numbers surveyors should stamp, or otherwise indicate on any copy of a Plan provided to a client or conveyancer that the copy is an ‘unlodged version’.

Plan numbers and/or field book numbers will be pre-allocated to survey firms or practising licensed surveyors in batches of 10, 20 or 50 by applying to the Lead Consultant Plan Lodgement at Landgate via email at planreg@landgate.wa.gov.au. The subject heading of each email should be ‘Pre-allocated Numbers Request’. Landgate response is a reply email advising the numbers that have been pre-allocated. Note also that this contact point should be used to obtain pre-allocated Deposited Plan numbers for ‘Interest Only’ Plans.

Note that Crown Plans are lodged in the first instance with Survey Coordination, State Land Services, RDL.

Surveyors must avoid using duplicated numbers for any plans or field books that they lodge. Surveyors should avoid applying for numbers they are unlikely to use within 6 months of the number being pre-allocated.

Surveyors must ensure that the names of Strata Schemes are unique when preparing Strata and Survey-Strata Plans.

The surveyor must record the number used for any Plan or field book in the appropriate location/s within the survey document and also on the ‘Survey Lodgement Self Assessment’ form. Where an eFB is lodged in accordance with the Special Survey Area Guidelines it must contain a reference to the Deposited Plan number in record 1 of the CSD file. See Lodgement Procedures and APX-05 Digital Data Format Specifications.

3  Digital Plans

The strategic direction of Landgate is to receive all its title and survey data in digital form to enable accurate, faster and efficient processing of that data which in turn will deliver a better service to its customers.

Consistent with that strategic direction surveyors are advised that lodgement of hard copy Deposited Plans and Strata/ Survey- Strata Plans will no longer be available as an option from Monday 1 February 2010

4  Lots on a Plan Sheet

Surveyors should avoid overcrowding the graphic area of a Plan with too many lots and enlargements. Multiple sheets should be used if the graphic area becomes overcrowded (see chapter 9 below).

5  Multiple Sheet Plans

Regulation 10 of the Transfer of Land (Surveys) Regulations 1995 limits the number of sheets in a deposited plan to 4 unless the Inspector of Plans and Surveys or an Authorised Land Officer approves a greater number of sheets. The Inspector of Plans and Surveys has approved Deposited Plans with a purpose of ‘Subdivision’ to be comprised of an unlimited number of sheets. The principal criteria to use when preparing such Plans is the clarity and accuracy of the information depicted. Plans for subdivisions within Special Survey Areas require additional sheets to be added to Plans after lodgement.

After a successful pilot, the Electronic Transfer of Deposited Plans (etDP) Process between Landgate and Western Australian Planning Commission (WAPC) was implemented on 26 July 2010.

As a consequence, WAPC now only endorses the first sheet of a Deposited Plan.

Landgate requests that the “Approved by Western Australia Planning Commission” panels for sheet 2 onwards of a multi-sheet Deposited Plan be struck out or removed for the DP template.

The amendments to the Transfer of Land Act 1893 in 1996 made provision for the creation of Automatic Easements and the notation of Restrictive Covenants on subdivisional Plans. The information about the easement or restrictive covenant can be either on the Plan or in the instrument lodged in relation to the Plan.

In addition, the implementation of the LAA in March 1998 required inset sketches of road closures, private road or right of way closures for amalgamation and Crown Land for amalgamation to be shown on subdivisional Plans.

This new legislation, together with the introduction of SmartRegister and Special Survey Areas has made some subdivisional Plans more detailed and complex. The use of multiple sheets for this additional information is recommended for clarity. There are no additional Landgate fees if extra sheets are used. They are treated as a single Plan. This will benefit the public and surveyors when searching, as well as provide clear, legible copies from Landgate’s imaging system.

The preferred practice for depicting surveys on Plans involving more than two sheets is for Sheet 1 to be an index to subsequent sheets. Where a subdivision creates a substantial ‘balance lot’ then that lot, with its dimensions, should be shown on the first sheet.

Sheets must be individually numbered and cross-referenced to the other sheets for that Plan. Special instructions may apply to large individual projects (e.g. MRWA road casement surveys, gas pipeline projects and power line easements).

The Department for Planning and Infrastructure require the WAPC reference number to be shown on each sheet of a multiple sheet Plan.

Where a schedule of interests and notifications is shown on the Plan (see SPP-14  Easements, Covenant, Notifications and Other Interests Section 1), the schedule must point to the relevant sheet for each interest or notification.

6  Scale should be Suitable to Show Detail

An appropriate metric representative fraction should be chosen and should be sufficiently large, such that when Plans are reduced to A4 size, all detail is clear and legible.

The preferred scales are:

1:750   1:1500 1:3000 1:6000

1:1000 1:2000 1:4000 1:8000

1:1250 1:2500 1:5000 1:10000

or multiples or divisions of 10 thereof.

It is preferred that enlargements are drawn at a larger scale but where this is not practicable the enlargement must be clearly annotated as being ‘NOT TO SCALE’.

7  Graphical (Bar) Scale

Because Plans are photo-reduced for search purposes a graphical (bar) scale suitable for measuring distances on the Plan shall be shown on each Plan. It is best practice to show the Bar Scale close to and under the Representative Fraction.

8  Orientation

The orientation of the Plan is to be indicated by a north point arrow which should be at least 100mm long. It is preferable although not necessary that the north point is parallel to the side edge of the Plan form. The north point should never point generally downwards. The orientation may be rotated in order to incorporate a best scale, however the free text annotations must be inserted parallel to the bottom of the Plan regardless of the direction of the north point. All sheets of the plan should be on the same orientation.

9  Line Styles

The Line Styles that should be used:

10  Text Styles

The text sizes and styles listed are those recommended to ensure readability of plans when photo-reduced, reproduced or faxed.

Test Sizes and Styles

TextHeightThickness (mm)Styles
Lot Numbers, the subject of the plan (includes Crown parcels)3.5 or 50.35 or 0.5Italics
Road Names (Subject and Abuttal)3.5 or 50.35 or 0.5Upper Case & Upright
Road Widening2.50.25Upper Case & Upright
Subdivided Crown Parcel3.5 or 50.35 or 0.5Broken Italics
Numbers (parent to the plan)   
Reserves & UCL Notations3.50.35Upright
Current Mining Tenement Numbers3.50.35Upright
Pastoral Lease Names2.50.35Upright
Pastoral Lease Numbers3.50.35Upright
State Forest (S.F. No)3.50.35Upright
Townsites3.50.35Upright
Water Feature3.50.35Italics
Water Features (x2)2.5 & 3.50.25 or 0.35Italics
Abutting Lot Numbers3.50.35Italics
C/T Numbers2.50.25Italics
Abutting plan2.50.25Upright
Areas & areas ex lots2.50.25Italics
General Text & Legal Notations2.52.50.25Upright Uppercase
‘Traverse Only’ notation2.50.25Italics
Boundary Distances2.50.25Italics
Angles2.50.25Upright
Easement / Interest Angles and Distances1.80.18Upright
Plan Type3.50.35Upright
Plan Purpose3.50.35Upright
Heading5.00.5Upright
Former Tenure (Table)2.50.25Upright
Plan Number10.0 or 14.01.0Upright
Field book Number2.5 & 3.50.25 or 0.35Upright
District, scale, file etc.3.50.35 

The font used for these texts is to be of a type such that the first priority is optimum legibility of a reduced size copy. It should be an open style without serifs and with clear distinction between similar shaped figures and with a readily visible decimal point. The preferred font style is ISO 3098 or similar. Black text and line work only is to be used on Plans.

11 Symbols

All posts, pegs and intermediate spikes (or their replacements) should be shown on the Plan as circles (preferably 1.5 mm diameter). Any variation from standard centred mark, as per general regulation 36, should be described in an annotation.

All old posts, pegs or intermediate spikes of Crown Surveys are to be shown on the plan as OM If adjusted then OM adj. If renewed then OMR. If gone then OMG. If gone and replaced then OMGR.

All old posts, pegs or intermediate spikes of Freehold Subdivisional Surveys are to be shown on the Plan as MF. If adjusted then MF adj. If renewed then MFR. If gone then MG. If gone and replaced then MGR.

Where marks are gone and it is not possible to place a mark at the original position (new mark is offset from the original position), then the mark is shown as MG or DMG- not MGR or DMGR.

The survey type when a mark is originally placed determines the annotation from then on. Marks placed at corners created by Crown surveys will always be either OM, OMR, OMG or OMGR regardless of whether they are replaced by a freehold survey. Similarly corners marked during a freehold survey will always be MF etc.

In rural surveys mile-posts and kilometre posts should be shown as a double circle and the notation 1 MP, 1 KMP or if found or replaced 1 MPF, 1 KMPF, 1 MPR, 1 KMPR. (See plan example 29.)

12 Old Lines to Complete Surround

Where existing angles and distances are used to complete the surround of a survey dimensions from the latest existing registered surveys should be used.

In some instances, field book information can be used where it is clearly proven and differs considerably from original registered surveys. A reference needs to be made in the new field book to the original field book/s adopted for the surround dimensions.

Where angles and complete distances are shown, these shall be labelled ‘orig’ and no existing intermediate distances and marks shall be shown. It is not necessary to include the ‘orig’ labelling on deposited plans for Special Survey Area subdivisions provided the survey/s have been carried out by the same survey firm. The surround field book number/s must be shown in the field book box on the Plan. If the surround or part of the surround of a Special Survey Area subdivision is measured by a different survey firm, the ‘orig’ labelling must be used.

Where a line is composed of both existing and new work, the existing portion is labelled orig and is shown without intermediate distances and marks. The total distance should be labelled ‘per orig’ (as should any angles and distances calculated from a combination of existing and new measurements).

Circles (indicating survey pegs or posts) should not be shown at original lot corners unless marks were found at those corners. Corners not marked should be shown without a circle.

12.1 Connections between Severances

Where practical, connections between severances should be shown on Deposited Plans. Ideally severances should have separate lot numbers but this may not always be possible as planning approval would usually be required or there may be taxes or charges involved. The position of parcel severances is defined by the abuttals. Any connections between severances shown on a Plan are subsidiary to the abuttals.

CSD files need to supply ‘relativity’ between any severances captured unless real world coordinates are provided. This could be achieved by a traverse through cadastral alignments or a single calculated tie.

13 Measurement Content

The total length of each individual lot boundary line must be shown on the plan. Distances to and between intermediate marks must be shown. Rounding off of intermediate distances should be such that these add up to the total distance, which is the total measured distance.

14 Measurement Presentation

  • Distances should be shown in metres to the nearest 0.01 metre. Distances on SSA Plans only may be shown to the nearest millimetre.
  • For distances less than one metre the decimal point should be preceded by a ‘0’ (e.g. 0.75 not .75).
  • ‘0’ need not be shown as the last character of a length; to the right of the decimal point (e.g.15.10 is expressed as 15.1).
  • Angles should be shown to the nearest second.
  • Nil seconds or nil minutes and seconds need not be shown (e.g.170º0’0” is expressed as 170º and 170º11’0” is expressed as 170º11’).

See Section 20 for the presentation of areas.

15 Balance Lots

Regulation 5(1) to (3) of the Transfer of Land (Surveys) Regulations 1995 requires surveyors to include in plans of subdivision, acquisition and amalgamation (this includes amalgamations of Crown land with freehold land) any residue land as a separate lot or lots. See plan examples 2, 11 and 53.

Where a road has an existing lot number and a portion is to be closed, a balance lot must be created showing any existing interests carried forward. The heading to include:

‘and Dedicated Roads (Lot 300)’.

See plan example 85.

Sub-regulation (5) states that if the boundaries of the residue are extensive the Registrar of Titles, Inspector of Plans and Surveys or an Authorised Land Officer (ALO) may allow the part of the Plan showing the residue to be compiled and the distances, angles or bearings (where applicable) for the boundaries, easements or covenants to be omitted. At this stage, this option has been limited to ‘sketch Plans’ under the LAA.

Sub-regulation (6) states that the Registrar of Titles or an ALO may direct that sub-regulations (1) to (5) do not apply to a particular Plan (or specific types of Plan) of Crown Land. Such situations will most likely occur where UCL, Pastoral leases, State Forests and large reserves are involved. Where surveyors encounter this situation in circumstances other than those where the survey instructions are issued from Survey Coordination, RDL, a formal application for an exemption under regulation 5(6) is necessary. (See plan example 100.) The Registrar of Titles or an ALO will need to approve the application before the exemption can be used.

To meet the requirements of this regulation it may be necessary to use several sheets for a single plan. (See Section 5.)

To avoid planning and valuation problems surveyors must now identify any balance lots that are not to receive servicing facilities, by using a lot number in the 9000 number range. Any ‘super lots’ that are the subject of future stages in the subdivision must be identified using the 9500 number range.

Where a large balance lot has many abutting lots and roads such that it is difficult to show all the abutting lot numbers and road names at a suitable scale, the abuttals may be depicted by line-work and references to the relevant plan numbers only.

16 Multiple Owner Subdivision

The repealing of regulation 44 of the Licensed Surveyors (Transfer of Land Act 1893) Regulations 1961 has allowed for Plans to show land in multiple ownership without the need for conveyancing action to bring the land into single ownership.

Plans involving multiple owners will require all the relevant transfer documents and consents pertaining to encumbrances to be lodged before the Plan is approved. New Titles will be issued in accordance with a single application (signed by all the affected owners).

SmartRegister amendments to the Transfer of Land Act 1893 allow for disposition statements to enable clarity in the allocation of encumbrances in land transfers.

A new Plan feature for subdivisions of land involving multiple owners or titles is the inclusion of a ‘former tenure table’ which clearly indicates the previous tenure of each lot. (See Plan Practices Section 7.) The schedule assists in the preparation of the conveyancing documentation and new folio creation.

17 Freehold: Land Acquisitions

Where an acquiring authority has reached agreement with the affected registered proprietors the process can be treated in a similar manner to a normal subdivision. The Plan would show the complete details of the residue parcels which would be given a new parcel identifier. The application for Titles, including the Titles of the residue lots, would need to contain the signatures of all the registered proprietors of the subject land. The acquired lot/s then transfer to the acquiring authority or the ‘State of Western Australia’. If the acquired land is to be a road, another option would be road dedication.

It may be possible to allocate only one lot number to the whole of the acquired land, in which case the taking orders would refer to the relevant portions of the lot.

No partial approvals are permitted with acquisition Plans affecting Freehold Land– the application for titles would need to include all lots shown on the Plan.

Where an acquiring authority is unable to reach agreement with the registered proprietors there would be a need for the registration of a ‘Notice of Intention to Take’ against the affected Title. The registration of a ‘Taking Order’ will cause the issue of Titles to the acquiring authority for the acquired land. The ‘Taking Order’ will also trigger the ‘automatic’ creation of any balance Titles but no duplicate Titles for the balance lots will issue until applied for by the registered proprietors – no fees apply. No sundry documents are required.

It is not possible to show sole subject road dedications on Survey Plans where a residue (i.e. part lot) is created. Such dedications will need to be carried out in the same manner as a normal subdivision with the residue land being allocated a unique parcel identifier. section 168(5) P & D Act can be used for sole subject road dedications where the subject is a whole lot or all of an existing part lot. See plan examples 5, 11, 85, 95 and 102. Also see SPP-11 Specific Plan Purposes Section 1.

18 Crown Land Acquisitions

A Crown Plan type must be used where Crown Land is involved and it is intended that the land acquisition lead to road dedication or Crown easement creation. In this case there is a requirement for a Crown Land Title to be prepared for registration of the ‘Notice of Intention to Take’ and the ‘Taking Order’. Where Native Title rights exist, staged plan approval may be required. See plan examples 54, 61, 70, 71, 100 and 104.

19 Rural Road Dedications and the Non-Extinguishment of Native Title

Section K of the Native Title Act 1993 (NTA) deals with the provision of facilities to the public and allows for the non-extinguishment of Native Title.

Landgate, in accordance with a Government Task Force’s recommendations, uses Section K of the NTA and the non-extinguishment principle for rural road dedications. This means that during the currency of a rural road dedication Native Title exists but is suppressed whilst the road is, and remains dedicated, and the public has the right to use the road. Authorities have the ability to maintain the road. Once the road or portion of it, is closed it reverts to Unallocated Crown land, Native Title re-asserts itself and takes precedence.

Plan examples 104 and 105 indicate how the non-extinguishment principle is to be depicted on deposited plans, within the Interests and Notifications schedule. Where a specific Native Title holder exists they should be shown in the ‘Benefit To’ column.

20 Adverse Possession Claims

The plans for Possessory Title applications (see SPP-15 Possessory Applications and Bringing Land under the TLA need to be prepared in the same manner as multiple owner subdivisions with all portions of land uniquely identified on one Plan. As the landowner adversely affected by a successful claim is unlikely to sign any documentation, balance Title/s automatically issue on registration of a sundry document or on direction from the Commissioner of Titles.

Where a successful claim adversely affects a Strata/Survey-Strata Scheme the procedures are more complex. A Plan of re-subdivision for the Strata/Survey-Strata Scheme, paid for by the claimant, will be required (i.e. the same as if a resumption had occurred).

21 Isolated Crown Surveys

The Registrar of Titles or an Authorised Land Officer may authorise for an isolated Crown parcel to be shown on a Plan without the residue land being shown on the plan. (See Section 15.)

Plans of isolated parcels that are not connected to the State Geodetic Network must show bearings and an azimuth source. (See Section 26 also.)

22 Residue Land Solutions

There are some situations where the depiction and/or definition of residue land in a subdivision results in difficulties for surveyors. The following should assist surveyors in dealing with most of the difficult situations that are likely to occur.

22.1 Multiple Lot Titles

The SmartRegister digital titling system can process multiple lot Titles (i.e. multiple land parcels held in a single Title) at this time. Surveyors and landowners/developers should note that the following options are currently available when undertaking subdivisions or acquisitions of land held in multiple lot titles:

  • in the case of a subdivision the landowner/developer proposing may elect to have the residue land shown on the plan as a new single balance lot. This option is not currently available for a proposed acquisition for public purposes
  • alternatively the landowner/developer proposing to subdivide a multiple lot Title may opt to apply for separate Titles or a single balance title for the residue land
  • A Plan may be lodged where the former tenure includes a whole individual lot (or lots) within a multi-lot Title (i.e. does not cover all lots contained in the Title). Any remaining original lots will continue to exist on a multi lot title
  • for acquisitions/takings under the LAA this may be achieved by a sundry document. The former tenure table on the Deposited Plan must clearly show that only a ‘part’ of the multi-lot Title is included in the Plan. A further sundry document may be required following registration of the taking to create a balance of the multi-lot Title
  • in some situations involving acquisitions/takings under the LAA, it may be more practical for Landgate to partially cancel the multi lot Title. In these situations Regulation 5(6) of the Transfer of Land (Surveys) Regulations 1995 will apply and no residue land is to be depicted on the acquisition Plan. See plan example 85.
22.2 Possessory Applications Claiming Part of a Multiple Lot Titles

Where a possessory application is lodged claiming part of the land contained in a multiple lot Title, the resultant Deposited Plan must show the residue of any affected lots as new lots. Lots not affected by the claim should not be depicted on the Deposited Plan.

The former tenure table on the Deposited Plan must clearly show that only a ‘part’ of the multi-lot Title is included in the Plan. Landgate will register a sundry document following registration of the possessory application to include the unaffected lots and the new balance lots from the old multi-lot Title in a new multi-lot Title.

22.3 Road and Road Widenings from Extensive Freehold Parcels

Where a road or road widening is proposed to be acquired from an extensive Freehold parcel such as a golf course an application in writing may be made to the Registrar of Titles to utilise regulation 5(6) of the Transfer of Land (Surveys) Regulations 1995 and if the application is approved, no residue land needs to be depicted on the Acquisition Plan. (See plan example 85.)

The Plan is to be annotated ‘Lot ____ to be acquired under Part 9 of the LAA is Crown land for the purposes of Transfer of Land (Surveys) Reg 5(6)’.

22.4 Excisions from Corridors

Where a new development requires an excision from a road, railway, drain or similar infrastructure corridor for which no Title exists, it is not necessary to show the residue of land in the corridor on the new Deposited Plan depicting that development.

If an excision occurs from an extensive road, railway, private Right of Way, drain or similar corridor, that is held in a paper Certificate of Title early contact with the Inspector of Plans and Surveys at Landgate must be made to allow an assessment on whether a balance lot for the residue land is required.

Some of the options available in such situations include:

  • Landgate resolving the situation by amending the original Plan by allocating a ‘lot on plan’ identifier to a manageable portion of the corridor (usually a portion within a street section).
  • Landgate preparing a new graphic to allow digital Titles to capture the corridor or part of the corridor, in manageable portions.
  • in some cases it may be more practical for Landgate to maintain the paper Title and the relevant graphic. In these situations regulation 5(5) of the Transfer of Land (Surveys) Regulations 1995 will apply and the new Deposited Plan is to contain an annotation stating that the residue land in the Title for the corridor is not fully depicted on the Plan.

23 Road Widths

Road widths within the Plan must be shown. See SPP-13 Roads Section 13.

For Crown Grant roads, see SPP-13 Roads Section 14.

24 Road Names

Any road created on a Plan requires a name approved by Landgate on behalf of the Minister for Lands. This approved name should be shown on the Plan and in relevant field book/s. For any further information as to this procedure, refer to the Geographic Names Committee’s ‘Principles, Guidelines and Procedures’ document available from Landgate. New road names require the support of the relevant local government, and it is essential that the names are proposed early in the land development process and conform to the guidelines to avoid delays in the approval process. The extent of road names for both newly created roads and existing roads must be easily recognised on the face of the Plan. See plan example 53.

As of 1 September 2012, all lodging parties are required to include all relevant road approval documents at the time of lodgement of the Plan, where the Plan contains a new Road or Road Extension.

Names of existing roads should be obtained from the Smart Plan Spatial viewer. If there is conflict or uncertainty regarding road names, contact the Secretary, Geographic Names Committee.

Where a previously dedicated road is being defined by survey, the heading of the Plan is to include:

“& DEDICATED ROAD”

25 Connections across Roads

Connections across roads, consisting of an angle from an alignment and the distance across the road, must be recorded on the plan at each angle point; at a suitable scale, using enlargements and additional sheets as necessary for clarity.

It is acceptable to omit the half angles in the case of parallel road alignments. Connections between the angle points of a series of shorter boundaries that comprise the sides of a parallel road in a town or suburban subdivision may be omitted such that there is no more than 50 metres between connections, and providing that there is a connection across the road at the end of each straight section longer than 50 metres.

These distances may be extended to 100 metres for rural and rural-residential subdivisions.

26 Truncations and Road Widenings

Regular and irregular truncations (i.e. unequal set back distances) on a Plan of subdivision must be labelled ‘ROAD WIDENING’. If the road widening does not automatically dedicate, a parcel identifier (i.e. Lot Number) must be added.

Land for the purpose of adding to a public street or road is to be labelled ‘ROAD WIDENING’. See plan example 56.

27 Areas

For areas less than 10,000 square metres area is shown to the nearest square metre (e.g. 9446 m²).

For areas of 10,000 square metres or greater, area is shown in hectares to four decimal places (e.g. 9.2713 ha).

‘0’ need not be shown as the last character of an area to the right of the decimal point (e.g. 6.4500 ha to be shown as 6.45 ha).

Areas are to be shown for each distinct parcel of land shown on the Plan with the exception of roads that automatically dedicate under section 168(1), (2) of the P & D Act and areas are to be shown for all road widenings that automatically dedicate under section 168(3) of the P & D Act and section 28(1) of the LAA.

28 Subject Land Total Distance

A distance must be shown along each external boundary of the subject land in order to define the extent of the subject land. This distance may be in addition to any total land parcel distances. If the subject land total distance is the sum of two or more land parcels then the distance is put in brackets.

29 Abuttals

All lots abutting the land the subject of the Plan must be identified by their lot on Plan numbers.

Where a large balance lot has many abutting lots and roads such that it is difficult to show all the abutting lot numbers and road names at a suitable scale, the abuttals may be depicted by line-work and references to the relevant Plan numbers only.

A Plan must show as abuttals the number of any abutting lot for which certificates of title have issued at the time of lodgement of that Plan. Lots on Plans that have been lodged but not yet approved (shown on “lodged layer” of SCDB) must not be shown as abuttals unless sound knowledge is demonstrated by the surveyor that lodgement of dealings for those lodged Plans is imminent.

Freehold Plan numbers are to be prefixed by either ‘P’ or ‘DP’ as appropriate. Freehold diagrams lodged prior to 1 July 2000 are to be numbered with a prefix ‘D’ and Strata/Survey Strata Plans as ‘SP’. Crown plan and diagram numbers are to be shown as their DP number only.

Where the duplicates (“mini-plans”) of subdivisional Plans were drafted as multiple sheets for convenience, Plan sheet numbers need not be shown. If the original Plan is a multi-sheet ‘Deposited Plan’ using the new Plan format, the sheet number should not be included because any or all of the sheets may contain relevant information.

The numbers of all adjoining Crown reserves should be shown.

  • Note

For abutting private rights of way and private roads, see SPP-14 Easements, Covenants, Notifications and Other Interests Section 6.

If an abutting road is necessary for access into the subject Plan, then the name of that abutting road should be shown on the subject Plan, and the subject Plan will be made In Order for Dealings subject to the approval of that abutting Plan if it is not already approved.

In many country townsites, for example Kalgoorlie, there are many public undesignated accessways created on Crown survey plans. These are shown with the Plan number and designated ‘Public ROW’ in brackets.

When a lot abuts a public or private road, ROW, PAW (even 0.1metre wide), drain reserve or waterway the extent and location of that abuttal is of consequence to the proprietor. The information is usually provided incidentally by the dimensions of the subject lot and the placement of the name or description of the abuttal.

In those infrequent cases where an abutting public or private road, ROW, PAW, drain reserve or waterway is not located exactly by other dimensions sufficient extra external surround dimensions should be added to the Plan to indicate the position and extent of that abuttal.

Where main roads or highways are abuttals the notation ‘Proclaimed Highway’ or ‘Main Road under the Main Roads Act’ is to be shown with the Plan number and a lot identifier if there is one. If the highway has a name it should be shown also. Typical examples of these highways are Tonkin, Roe, Reid and the Bunbury-Busselton Bypass. Some of these roads are not dedicated and remain under the TLA and owned by the Crown or the Commissioner of Main Roads.

Section 14 of the Main Roads Act 1930 proclaims these roads as highways, open to the public. Under section 28A 1(b), on the recommendation of the Commissioner, the Governor may by proclamation declare:

  • that such a section or part of a road is subject to control of access, and
  • the places only at which it may be entered or departed from.

To verify if the above proclamations have been effected, contact the Land Tenure Manager (MRWA) on telephone 9323 4168.

Abutting railway reserves (Crown or Freehold) are shown with the Plan number and labelled ‘RAILWAY’.

Abutting drain reserves (Crown or Freehold) are shown with the Plan number and labelled ‘DRAIN’.

Where an abuttal is the subject of a Strata Scheme; the Strata or Survey-Strata Plan number should be placed (in brackets and prefixed) under the DP number under the parent lot number for the abuttal.

29.1 Depiction of Part Lots as Abuttals

To allow most of the existing lots described as part lots (as a result of road excisions etc.) to be captured as digital Titles in SmartRegister it was necessary for them to be captured as whole lot Titles endorsed with an exclusion notation (e.g. excludes road shown on CP1234). These same lots were also converted en masse in the spatial database to be shown as whole lots.

New Deposited Plans should show these lots (i.e. former part lots that have been captured in SmartRegister as whole lots), as whole lots, where they exist as abuttals.

29.2 Dual Numbering of Crown Plans and Diagrams

To enable Freehold Titles that exist over lots/locations depicted on the various types of Crown Plans and diagrams to be captured in SmartRegister it has been necessary for Landgate to allocate them a Deposited Plan (DP) number. The table in SPP-02 Searching Landgate Records Section 5indicates the number ranges allocated to each Plan or diagram type.

If any abuttals involve land on a dual numbered plan then only the DP number needs to be shown.

30 Enlargement of Displaced Detail

In order to maintain clarity or overcome a lack of space, enlargements or arrowing in detail may be used. The arrowed in, displaced detail should be parallel to the line in the case of a linear measure and on the half angle in the case of an angular measure. Enlargements need not be drawn to scale.

Ambiguous labelling of enlargements is to be avoided. If other components in a plan (e.g. easements, cross-sections or access restrictions) require labelling, different letters of the alphabet should be used.

In remote areas it is often required to depict a small parcel at the end of a long traverse. It is necessary to depict the entire survey at scale (parcel and traverse) with suitable enlargements for the small parcel.

Insets are usually required for:

  • Lands for Revestment
  • Crown Land Amalgamations
  • Closed Roads within the subject
  • Easements over Crown Land for inclusion.

31 Water Features

Where lines of coasts, rivers, lakes, swamps or watercourses form part of the boundary to a lot these should be shown by full black lines and suitably named where appropriate. See plan examples 9, 57 and 59.

Both sides of non-tidal watercourses should be shown where reasonable and an arrow denoting the direction of flow of the stream.

Showing a water boundary as an abuttal requires the annotation HWM or if high water mark is not the boundary then this must be stated (e.g. ‘Boundary is low water mark’ or ‘not a riparian boundary’). If any ambiguity exists or boundaries are determined from aerial photography then an annotation should be used (e.g. in the case of a retaining wall, ‘High Water Mark’ or in the case of aerial photography ‘HWM drawn from 1979 aerial photography’).

If inconsistencies in the boundary definition are found, the situation should be resolved with Inspecting Surveyors before lodgement.

When tidal boundaries are located on the ground by setting out a contour at a height above AHD calculated to be at the definition of HWM; that boundaries on the plan should carry the annotation- ‘High Water Mark (at.......m above AHD)’, quoting the actual height adopted above the Australian Height Datum.

Refer SPP-05 Surveys of Water Boundaries for information on surveys of water boundaries.

32 Colouring

The colouring required on both Crown and Freehold Plans is as follows:

  • A green border is to be shown along the boundaries of the subject land.
  • New section 167 of the P & D Act easements in favour of a local government are uncoloured.
  • New section 167 of the P & D Act easements in favour of the Water Corporation are uncoloured.
  • New section 167 of the P & D Act easements in favour of the holder of a gas distribution license (such as Alinta Gas) or Electricity Generation Corporation, Electricity Networks Corporation, Electricity Retail Corporation, Regional Power Corporation are uncoloured.

New roads within the subject land, pedestrian accesses, both private and public ROWs, abutting vested PAWs and ROWs, abutting private ROWs, abutting public road and public ROWs (those created on a Crown survey Plan/diagram), abutting Crown reserves, abutting railway reserves, abutting drain reserves, water features and abutting State forests are all to be left uncoloured. Full descriptions of private road abuttals are required in lieu of colouring. (See Section 22.)

33 Fixation of Surveys

The Plan of an isolated survey must show a connection or tie to an existing cadastral boundary so that the survey can be located in relation to the existing cadastre. In order to help locate surveys it may be useful on survey Plans to show connections to nearby road intersections or other distinctive survey features.

34 Lot Number Duplication

See SPP-21 Subdivision and  Project Management Issues Section 10.

35 SSM Depiction

On rural Crown surveys all SSMs (including Trig stations) connected to, must be shown on the Plan.

For GPS surveys the calculated mid-azimuth derived from the GPS observation shall be shown to seconds.

Due to the dynamic nature of coordinate information MGA coordinates of SSMs are not to be shown. The only information to be shown is the SSM name. See plan example 64.

36 Azimuths and Grid Bearings

Azimuths or Grid Bearings need only be shown on Plans when specific guidelines for a type of survey require that they be shown (e.g. Isolated Crown Surveys, Road Casement Surveys).

The source of any adopted azimuth or bearing shown on Plans is to be included in the graphic area of the Plan form. Examples of possible sources include:

  • an existing Plan or diagram,
  • an observation for azimuth (astronomic or GPS),
  • geodetic connection, and
  • the SCDB (include date of download/enquiry).

37 Administrative Boundaries on Crown Plans

The following administrative boundaries are to be shown on Crown survey Plans:

37.1 Townsite Boundaries

Townsites were created by both the former Land Act 1933 (LA) and by the Local Government Act 1960 (LGA). Upon proclamation of the LGA in 1995 all LGA townsites became LA townsites

RDL is proceeding to rationalise all the former LGA townsites (i.e. cancel, amalgamate or create). The State Land Services will instruct in each situation.

37.2 State Forest Boundaries

When creating:

  • Lot ex State Forest - boundary to be shown around the subject ceasing at road (indicating that State Forest also exists on the other side of road).
  • Roads (sole subject) through State Forest - no boundary to be shown.
  • Roads (sole subject) with one State Forest boundary - boundary to be shown.

Note

The depiction of State Forest boundary must indicate one side of the boundary is State Forest.

37.3 Other Administrative Boundaries
  • Agricultural Area, Suburban Area and Estate Area boundaries may be shown.
  • Port Authority Boundary must be shown.
  • Local Government boundaries (only for Road Casement Surveys by Limited Marking – regulation 26A as issued by Main Roads WA).

Note

Refer Section 9 for line styles.

38 Permanent Improvements as Boundaries

When permanent improvements are intended to form a boundary (e.g. building or fence line) then graphic depiction of that improvement is required along with detail of corner definition.

39 Encroachments, Building Connections

If part of a building, wall or other significant improvement is built such that it crosses over the boundary between the subject land and an abutting lot, the encroachment must be recorded on the plan. Connections to buildings, walls and other types of significant improvements that are close to, but do not cross over, the boundary of the subject land may be recorded on the plan at the surveyor’s discretion.

40 Parcel Identifier within Subject

Wherever possible the Parcel Identifier is to be shown within the subject and orientated parallel to the base of the Plan.

If the subject land includes a reserve, there is no need to show the reserve number as the reserve may be cancelled during the dealing of the Plan.

41 Pastoral Leases

A broken station name is to be shown e.g. ‘IDA VALLEY STATION’ along with any current lot number/s.

On Spatial Viewer a broken PI number signifies that the lease extends over more than one Land District. PI numbers for pastoral leases are not to be shown broken on a Crown Plan.

Any surrenders/excisions from leases require the Plan to be presented to the leaseholder. Therefore connections must be shown to the nearest pastoral lease boundary in order to locate the area of the surrender/excision. See Section 25 also.

42 Unmarked Defined Boundaries

Boundaries which have been spatially determined but which have not been fully marked by a survey will be symbolised by an unbroken line. The annotation ‘Reg 26A’ or ‘Reg. 21(1)’ (as appropriate) shall be shown within the ‘Approved’ panel.

Examples of these are:

  • surveys using GPS methods, providing monuments and / or DRMS have been placed at each corner
  • road surveys through State Forest and timber reserves, where the boundaries have only been partially marked
  • road surveys where one boundary has been marked by traditional methods with the opposite side being calculated
  • boundaries with distances between intermediate marks exceeding 250 metres
  • limited marking road casement surveys. See plan examples 70 and 71.

In all of these cases the boundary dimensions are accurately determined by survey and can be accurately fixed on the ground in the future.

Boundaries that have no mathematical or spatial integrity and have not been surveyed can be shown on certain Crown Plans usually where the land is not to be alienated by a broken line.

Additionally, unmarked boundaries of very large parcels that are defined by geographical coordinates and long connections from existing geodetic survey marks should be shown with broken lines to indicate that a survey specifically for defining those boundaries has not been carried out.

See Section 47 for the depiction of ‘Sketch on Transfer’ boundaries and boundaries created from subdivisions by description.

43 Compiled Plans

Compiled Plans may be used in some situations where the boundaries of the subject land have previously been defined by approved Plans, cancelled surveys and superseded surveys or Plans certified correct but not yet dealt on. Surveyors are reminded of the strict procedural guidelines associated with the usage of Operational Directives such as Executive Minutes 10/92, 17/90 and Survey Registration Minute 1/98, when creating Complied Plans.

Survey Coordination of RDL issue survey drafting instructions to utilise these Operational Directives, however, any enquires regarding these guidelines are to be referred to the Inspector of Plans and Surveys. See APX-02 Operational Directives and plan examples 58, 66 and 67.

Angles and distances used in the compilation are derived from the latest information for the subject land boundaries. The information is to be obtained from the latest measurements shown on both Crown and Freehold Plans whether or not these Plans are parent Plans or abutting Plans for either part or all of an existing boundary; and also DMP Plans (mining tenements) where appropriate. In the case of sketch on transfer boundaries then the title distance is used in the compilation.

Where imperial distances have been metricated on the working copies (duplicates) of Plans and diagrams, for example, 100 links and 90 links, which convert to 20.117 and 18.105 respectively, they are shown as 20.12 and 18.11 respectively on the “duplicates”. An amalgamation of lots with these distances would give a total imperial distance of 190 links which, when metricated, gives a total distance of 38.22 metres, and not the 38.23 metres obtained from a sum of the metricated values. So, when compiling from imperial surveys add the required imperial distances to give a total and then convert that total to metric. In some cases it may require the field book to be searched to determine the correct dimensions.

On older Crown Plans the practice was to round off the total boundary distance to the nearest link. In these cases Title distances take precedence.

Note

The exception to this rule is when the shape of the original Title is changing by compilation of a couple of lots. In this case use the original measured distance before the rounding.

Field book values may be used on the compiled plan in some situations (e.g. in the case of excessive miscloses or where a repeg field book provides more accurate values than the latest original plan or diagram).

Boundaries for compiled lots may be calculated (see plan example 8) providing:

  • the calculated boundary is less than 250 metres in length (i.e. does not require an intermediate mark),
  • the calculated boundary is between two previously marked corners or bends of parcels with live titles, and
  • a site inspection has been made to ensure that there is no conflict caused by the proposed boundary position and that the new boundary can be identified by the proprietor.

Compiled plans cannot be used to re-instate boundaries that have been extinguished by an amalgamation or re-subdivision. “Boundary lines” that were surveyed in the past but which have not been used to define land boundaries for a period of time must be re-surveyed for them to become boundaries again – see Figure 9.1 below for an example of such a situation.

Where a distance on a compiled Plan comprises partly calculated/about and partly surveyed components the separate components must be shown along with a ‘cal’/’abt’ total distance.

As a compiled Plan does not involve a survey all the angles and distances are original. By convention the suffix ‘ORIG’ should not be shown on any dimension. Survey marks and intermediate distances are not shown. A notation stating from the Plans/diagrams, Certificate of Title, survey graphic, field book or other sources from which the compilation was derived is necessary.

Circles (indicating survey pegs or posts) should not be shown at lot corners on compiled plans.

A licensed surveyor with a practising certificate is to sign the correct certificate on the face of the plan – labelled ‘SURVEYOR’S CERTIFICATE – Compiled’. The plan may need to be countersigned if the certifying surveyor is not eligible to verify the plan. (See Plan Practices Section 12.) The ‘FIELD BOOK’ section of the heading should show the notation ‘COMPILED’ to indicate a compiled Plan.

For the preparation of compiled Plans within the CBD areas of Perth, West Perth and Fremantle see Survey and Plans Practice Manual Searching Landgate Records Section 12.

Compiled plans are not to be used to re-instate boundaries that were removed by an amalgamation or re-subdivision.

44 Depiction of Mineral Reservations

The introduction of the SmartRegister digital Titles system caused changes in the way that mineral reservations are dealt with on Titles and Plans. The following outlines the requirements for surveyors to depict any mineral reservations affecting land on deposited plans.

44.1 Reservations in Crown Grants

Mineral reservations contained in the original Crown Grants need not be depicted or recorded on Deposited Plans. A SmartRegister Title contains a prefatory statement that indicates that the land in the Title is ‘subject to the reservations, conditions and depth limits contained in the original grant’.

44.2 Lands Affected by Section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902

Prior to 1953 section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902 excluded from resumptions all minerals except those necessary for the construction, support and maintenance of public works. Where minerals had been alienated and the land resumed an undefined portion of the minerals remained unresumed, causing problems for the then Titles Office determining what had and what had not been resumed.

Crown Grants issued after the introduction of the Land Act in 1898 had all minerals reserved to the Crown. The position was/is quite clear from that time. The earlier grants of land (including grants under the Deeds Office system) prior to 1898, where portion of the minerals were alienated remained a problem until in 1953 section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902 was amended to retrospectively provide that all minerals were included in any resumptions. section 15 was repealed in 1997 and replaced by section 164 of the LAA.

Titles to land affected by this provision will show different endorsements depending on the circumstances involved. If the whole of the land is affected the endorsement may state; ‘save and except the rights to mines of coal or other minerals’, or ‘the right to mines of coal or other minerals being excluded from the said land’. If portion of the land in a Title is affected the endorsement will usually state; ‘the right to mines of coal or other minerals being excluded from portion of the said land’.

In the past, areas affected by section 15 of the Public Works Act were indicated on the ‘working copy’ Plans (i.e. mini Plans and duplicate diagrams). Landgate’s imaging system provides copies of the working Plans. These Plans are no longer produced by Landgate and it is now necessary to show the affected areas on Deposited Plans.

Working copy Plans indicate affected areas in one of two ways. The affected areas are hachured and the Plan annotated ‘Portion hachured subject to section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902’. In some cases the unaffected areas are hachured and the plan annotated ‘save and except the portion hachured subject to section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902’.

Some roads closed and amalgamated under the former Road Districts Act 1919 were also subject to mineral reservations and are shown on ‘working copy’ Plans as affected by section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902.

Roads closed and amalgamated under the Land Act 1933 or the LAA are not affected by the provisions of section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902.

Where land affected by section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902 has been revested in the Crown the provision no longer applies to the land revested. Lots that are revested are identifiable on the existing ‘working copy’ Plans by a ‘Revested’ notation or a change in the parcel identifier (lot number) to a Crown allotment.

If all the land in a new Deposited Plan is affected by section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902 there is no need to show on the Plan that the lots are subject to mineral reservations as this will be carried forward onto any new Titles created. Where a portion of the land in a new Deposited Plan is affected by the former section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902 the Plan must show the subject portion and the Schedule of Interests and Notifications must indicate the new lots affected. See plan example 18.

In general, surveyors must bring forward onto new Deposited Plans the mineral reservations depicted on the ‘working copy’ Plans. Portions of land affected by section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902 are usually not dimensioned on Titles or working Plans. Surveyors are only required to plot affected portions on new Plans by scaling distances from existing documents and using labels, line-work and where necessary hachuring to clearly show the relevant portions. There is no need to include the information in CSD files.

44.3 Mineral Reservations in Transfers

Crown Grants that were registered in the name of the Commonwealth of Australia did not contain any mineral reservations. Where the Commonwealth disposed of land, the transfer effecting the sale normally contained the same mineral reservations as contained in a normal Crown Grant. Following registration of the transfer, the Commonwealth would then transfer to the Crown in right of the State the reserved mineral rights.

By virtue of the Midland Railway Company Acquisition Act 1963, the Minister for Western Australian Government Railways acquired all the property of the Midland Railway Company. The mineral rights granted or alienated to the Midland Railway Company become the property of the Crown on production of a vesting application by the Minister to the Registrar of Titles. Titles are usually endorsed ‘except and reserving metals minerals gems and mineral oil specified in Transfer No’ or ‘save and except minerals vested in the Crown pursuant to the provisions of section 4(5) of the Government Railways Act 54 of 1965. A Title may or may not make reference to the relevant transfer document.

Where portion of the land in a new Deposited Plan is affected by a mineral reservation contained in a transfer, or vesting under section 4(5) of the Government Railways Act 54 of 1965, the portion so affected must be depicted on the Plan in a similar manner to that required for land affected by section 15 of the Public Works Act 1902.

Plan example 30 and plan example 8 indicate the requirements for bringing forward mineral reservations created in transfers on Deposited Plans.

45 Depth Limits

The introduction of SmartRegister caused some changes in the way surveyors deal with the existing depth limits on Titles.

45.1 Background

Prior to 1898 Crown Grants were issued without any limitation on depth. In 1898, as land in the goldfields was likely to be auriferous it was decided to only grant land surface rights in goldfield town lots to a depth of 20 feet.

The Government Gazette of 11/3/1899 amended this to 40 feet for land in Goldfield and Mineral Districts and 2000 feet elsewhere. This was further amended in the Government Gazette of 6/3/1906 to 40 feet for Goldfield and Mineral Districts and 200 feet elsewhere.

The Government Gazette of 6/3/1934 gave the Minister for Lands the discretion to set other depth limits if required. Mineral Districts were progressively amended until in 1981, it was determined that the whole State was covered by Mineral Districts. All Crown Grants since then have been limited to 12.19 metres (the metric conversion of 40 feet) unless the Minister determined otherwise. Issuing of Crown Grants ceased on March 30 1998.

An exception is the Central Business District where in 1988, it was considered appropriate to set the limit at 60.96 metres (200 feet). This was due to the greater depth required for high rise building foundations and the fact that the CBD was unlikely to be the subject of a Mineral District.

Depth limits were initially set out in the Crown Grants together with conditions and reservations at the time of transfer to the Freehold estate. Depth limits, conditions and reservations applied to the whole of the Crown allotment being dealt with. Subsequent replacement Titles, as a result of a new subdivision or ‘too full for further endorsement’ had the depth limits brought forward but not the conditions etc. A continuing reference to the original Crown Grant is required if a current searcher requires details of conditions etc.

With the introduction of the Land Administration Act 1997 on March 30 1998 Crown Grants are no longer issued. Conveyance from the Crown estate to the Freehold estate is by way of a conventional transfer with a Certificate of Title issuing. Current RDL policy is that Crown Land being transferred to the Freehold estate will no longer be restricted in depth. section 9 of the Mining Act 1978 reserves gold, silver and other precious metals to the Crown and section 9 of the Petroleum Act 1967 declared all ‘petroleum’ to be property of the Crown.

45.2 Current Situation

Depth limits have not been imposed over all Freehold land. Where depth limits do apply a depth limit annotation with reference to the original parent Crown allotment must be shown on all subsequent Freehold Survey Plans.

A Crown survey depicting an original Crown allotment does not show, or have any reference to, depth limits as these were not created until the time of issue of the Crown Grant.

New Crown Land Titles do not contain any depth limits.

SmartRegister Titles will not make any direct reference to specific depth limits.

SmartPlan will not provide any information on depth limits. The CSD file lodged with a survey Plan does not include information on depth limits.

Surveyors need to add any depth limits of the subject land of a subdivision to the survey Plans. The depth limit is obtained from the Certificate of Title. A limited in depth ‘only’ notation is to be added where part of the subject land does not have a depth limit.

Difficulties may arise where part or all of the new survey emanates from a pre-LAA Crown survey on which details of any depth limits that exist are not annotated. In these circumstances the surveyor will need to undertake an historical search to determine the identity of the last manual Title, or search for the original Crown Grant and obtain a copy before he can comply with the above requirement.

It is current Landgate practice to include any unallocated Crown land being amalgamated into Freehold in the original Freehold depth limit.

46 Lot Numbers for Vesting Lots and Land Acquisitions

Until March 2004, where a plan involved land that was to vest in the Crown or where land was to dedicate as road following an acquisition under the Land Administration Act 1997, surveyors were requested to obtain a Crown allotment number for the relevant lots.

From March 2004 until June 2006, surveyors were asked to number such lots, as well as new Crown lots from a subdivision involving Crown land, using either the 300-399 or 3000-3099 number range; whichever was appropriate for the lot numbers on the plan. Those numbers were to indicate to Landgate staff the lots for which Crown Land Titles were expected to be created.

Neither of these requirements is now in place. Surveyors are free to use whichever lot numbers are appropriate for any particular plan, taking special care to avoid duplication of lot numbers. (See SPP-21 Subdivision and Project Management Issues Section 10.)

It has become clear that the notations on the plans and supporting documentation are sufficient for the correct registration actions to occur, and the use of such a range of lot numbers has the risk that some people will assign unintended intelligence to those lot numbers i.e. not all lot 300s are Crown land.

Surveyors are to use only the Freehold lot types (polytypes) in CSD files for all lots on the Plan. The Crown polytypes (i.e. A, E, L, S and T) are not to be used. All other naming conventions in accordance with the CSD User Guide (see Appendix 5) are to be followed.

47 Depiction of Original Unsurveyed Boundaries

Where original boundaries, that were created by a ‘Sketch on Transfer’ or by description (e.g. Moieties), are depicted on Deposited Plans, surveyors should adopt the following practices (see plan examples 46 and 47):

  • Where the plan shows distances that have been fixed by a transfer document, such distances are to be annotated as ‘orig’. In cases where these fixed distances are superseded by becoming part of new balance lot distances no ‘orig’ distance or angle annotation is necessary.
  • Where the plan is ‘Compiled’ no ‘orig’ distance or angle annotation is necessary as all dimensions are original.
  • Distances and angles for boundaries created by a transfer that are derived from survey or calculation are not to be annotated as ‘orig’ or ‘cal’.
  • Unsurveyed boundaries are to be shown as full lines but labelled and the following notation included on the Plan
  • “Unsurveyed Boundary A-B created in Transfer Document ……”
  • Where a boundary that was created by a ‘Sketch on Transfer’ or by description is subsequently surveyed and marked it should be labelled and the following notation included on the Plan
  • “Boundary A-B created in Transfer Document ……’”
  • In the past the transfer of portions of an original “survey” location was accepted without any further survey, usually by showing the new “calculated” boundaries in red ink on the original plan or diagram that was registered for the original “surveyed” location. New location numbers were then allocated to those “calculated” portions transferred.
  • Any “unsurveyed” boundary created as above is to be shown as a full line and labelled A_B. Notation on the plan is to include reference to the original plan or diagram that created the “unsurveyed” boundary.
  • If an “unsurveyed” boundary created as above is required to be surveyed, then surveyors are advised to first seek advice from the Survey Inspection Team at Landgate.
  • The transfer document number to be recorded in the notation is the one that creates the boundary in the first instance. This document would indicate any fixed distances.
  • These boundaries must be captured in CSD files in accordance with their survey status (i.e. whether they have been marked). Unsurveyed lines must be captured as ‘unsurveyed’ and surveyed/marked lines captured as ‘surveyed’ in the CSD file.

48 Curved Boundaries

It has long been Landgate’s policy not to accept new Plans with curved road alignments. This policy originated following complaints from utility agencies encountering problems installing services in their allocated corridors within road reserves where curves were involved.

Curved boundaries may be used elsewhere in a subdivision but they are not encouraged. There seems to be few practical reasons for them to be used. They are quite common in canal developments however where canal boundaries are usually related to the constructed walls bordering the canals.

Where it is necessary to survey two or more adjoining curves the plan must show the radius and arc of each curve together with the long chords as dotted construction lines. For clarity, bearings or mid-azimuths should be shown along each chord.

This page was last updated on: 09 Jun 2020